Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is a process used to consolidate metallic powder and to eliminate defects in solids such as pores, voids and internal cracks, densifying the material to 100% of the theoretical density. This process improves the main mechanical properties of components with high stresses, such as fatigue life, resilience, or ductility, and offers greater reliability. The advantages associated with HIP processing are numerous and interesting for various sectors, materials, and components. It is often asked, “how do you verify that the final result is really what is expected, and the part has the desired quality?”. The answer to this question is – certifications.
“Set of properties inherent to a thing that allows it to be characterized and valued with respect to the rest of its kind”
The definition offered by Oxford Languages leaves no room for doubt… To assess quality, a procedure is necessary that establishes the parameters and values to be considered when comparing various elements of the same group, that is, a standard that certifies its excellence is necessary.
Below we collect some of the most important quality standards according to sectors, however, we must be aware that there are also standards associated with the material-functionality-HIP relationship, applicable to any of them, such as:
- ASTM A1080/A1080M-19 – Standard Practice for Hot Isostatic Pressing of Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloy Castings.
- ASTM B998-17 – Standard Guide for Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) of Aluminum Alloy Castings.
- ASTM A989 / A989M – 18 – Standard Specification for Hot Isostatically-Pressed Alloy Steel Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High Temperature Service.
Therefore, it is advisable to obtain more detailed information at the standardization agencies of each country to complete the information available in this entry.
Quality certifications in the aerospace sector
The EN 9100, EN 9110 and EN 9120 series of Standards aim to increase the quality, reliability, and safety of aerospace products by paying special attention to the control of design, process control, purchasing and control of non-conformities.
Thanks to the implementation of the ICOP (Industry Controlled Other Party) scheme, they have become globally accepted quality standards, being renamed AS / EN / JISQ 9100/9110 and reducing individual audits for each client.
NOTE: The abbreviations AS, EN and JISQ indicate the respective national editions of the standard (AS = America, EN = Europe, JISQ = Japan).
This procedure, developed by the International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) and other national and international associations, seeks the global harmonization of the Aerospace Quality Management System (AQMS). Through ICOP, the activities carried out by the accredited Certification Bodies guarantee compliance with good practices and keep the information in the Online Aerospace Provider Information System (OASIS) updated.
Other standards to consider are also:
NADCAP AC7102/6 – Nadcap Audit Criteria for Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)
The use of the AC7102 audit checklist will ensure that accredited suppliers of heat treatment and / or parts for the aerospace sector meet the strict high quality standards required of their products.
AMS 2750 (Aerospace Material Specifications)
It is the most widely accepted standard in the aerospace industry for furnace maintenance. It describes in detail the pyrometric requirements for heat treatment facilities, equipment, and systems of suppliers in this sector.
Those specific to aircraft manufacturers, such as Airbus, BAE Systems, Boeing, GE, Honeywell, Messier-Dowty, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce or Smiths and Snecm, among others.
Quality certifications in the automotive sector
The quality standard in the automotive industry is CQI-9, which focuses on the continuous improvement of heat treatments. This standard was published in 2006 by the North American Association Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) and, since then, it has become an essential requirement for companies in the automotive sector. On the other hand, the latest revision of the IATF16949 quality regulation, applicable to automotive suppliers, makes a reference to its compliance.
Quality certifications in the medical sector
The regulations surrounding everything related to medical products and processes is broad and complex, beyond the usual. In addition to the existence of different certifications according to countries or regions, the degree of specificity of their scope is added, which influences the number of standards that are necessary to implement for the commercialization of these products and the guarantee of their production processes. For this reason, we collect the most common below and invite those interested to contact an accredited certification body to find out how many and which ones apply to them.
In the list of ISO standards we will find many standards classified by:
- Nature of the implant material, such as the list of ISO 5832 standards that distinguish different metallic materials (forged stainless steel, unalloyed titanium, specific alloys, etc.), or the ISO 13356: 2015 standard for surgical implants manufactured with Ceramic materials based on yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP).
- The element of the body that it replaces, as in these examples:
- ISO 21535: 2009 – Non-active surgical implants. Joint replacement implants. Specific requirements for hip joint replacement implants.
- ISO 21536: 2009 – Non-active surgical implants. Joint replacement implants. Specific requirements for knee joint replacement implants.
- The need to evaluate aspects such as biological compatibility, such is the case of the ISO 10993-1: 2018 standard or others more specific to its functionality, resistance, durability, etc. such as the ISO 14801: 2017 standard specifically for testing the dynamic loading of endosteal dental implants.
The same happens with the standards in ASTM for the North American market, whose long list of standards can be found on this website.
Quality certifications in the oil & gas sector
Some of the most common family of standards to consider when manufacturing components for this sector are listed below:
The American Petroleum Institute (API) is another of the reference institutions that define the standards in this sector. There are some publications that cover the use of components made using HIP, such as API TR 938-C, the latest edition of which already takes into account the use of the HIP process in duplex parts for pumps, valves and other applications.
- Industry-specific ISO standards
- Industry-specific NORSOK standards
For more information, do not hesitate to contact us. We will be delighted to assist you.